Electricity consumers finance the certificate system
Electricity suppliers buy electricity certificates in the joint market, and distribute the cost of certificates to the final price of electricity. In this way electricity consumers in Sweden and Norway help to pay for new renewable electricity. Energy-intensive industries are largely exempt from buying certificates, but do pay for certificates when the electricity is not used in a manufacturing process.
The average consumption of electricity is Norwegian and Swedish households is 20 000 kWh. Norwegian households paid on average 390 NOK (without VAT) and Swedish households paid 520 NOK (without VAT) for electricity certificates in 2015.